Built in the early 19th century by the Wallajah family of the Carnatic rulers, it is till date a popular gathering place for the daily prayers and festive occasions like Muharram. In 1996, keeping with the recent nationwide practice of Indianizing city names, the Government of Tamil Nadu, then represented by Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, renamed the city to Chennai. To differentiate these non-European and non-Christian area from "White Town", the new settlement was termed "Black Town. According to the new party history, instead of being named Madras, it was named Chennai, after a village called Chennapattanam, in honour of Damarla Chennapa Nayakudu, father of Damerla Venkatadri Nayakadu, who controlled the entire coastal country from Pulicat in the north to the Portuguese settlement of Santhome.[4][5]. The 2004 tsunami lashed the shores of Chennai killing many. The crew of a merchant ship also destroyed by the Germans that night. This spot also has the importance of pilgrimage tourism. It is a major manufacturing centre. They appointed chieftains to look after the Kanchipuram region. ; 31 BCE: Latest estimated date of the birth of Valluvar. Although the British had lost most of their well-populated, industrious, and wealthy North American colonies, after a decade's feud with the French, they were securely in control of Madras and most of the Indian trade. • Its older name Madras was officially changed to Chennai in 1996. Additionally, the pre-city area of Chennai has a long history within the records of South Indian Empires. Instead, it is likely that Fort was built either close to the village or if it was built upon the village, the village was relocated. Madras witnessed further political violence due to the civil war in Sri Lanka, with 33 people killed by a bomb planted by the Tamil Eelam Army at the airport in 1984, and assassination of thirteen members of the EPRLF and two Indian civilians by the rival LTTE in 1991. According to the treaty, only Europeans, principally Protestant British settlers were allowed to live in this area as outside of this confine, non-Indians were not allowed to own property. They reached Madraspatnam on 20 February 1640; and this date is important because it marks the first actual settlement of the English at the place. Madras was the capital of the Madras Presidency, also called Madras Province. Chennai History in Tamil 10.0 download - சென்னை நகரத்தில் வந்து குடி ஏறும் மக்களின் எண்ணிக்கை நாளுக்கு நாள் அதிகமாகிக் கொண்டே போகிறது. Chennai Tamil: சென்னை formerly known as Madras.ogg Madras is the capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Dhanu is widely believed to have been an LTTE member. Bappaswami, who is considered as the ruler to rule from Kanchipuram, was himself a chieftain (of the tract around) at Kanchipuram under the Satavahana empire in the beginning of the 3rd century. This period witnessed remarkable development of trade and increase in wealth resulting in the building of many fine houses, mansions, housing developments, an expanded port and city complete with new city walls, and various churches and schools for the British colonists and missionary schools for the local Indian population. In the 17th century, the English East India Company decided to build a factory on the east coast and in 1626 selected its site as Armagon (Dugarazpatnam), a village some 35 miles north of Pulicat. Subsequent to Ilam Tiraiyan, the region was ruled by the Chola Prince Ilam Killi. Francis Day wrote to his headquarters at Masulipatam for permission to inspect the proposed site at Madraspatnam and to examine the possibilities of trade there. With an estimated population of 8.9 million (2014), the 400-year-old city is the 31st largest metropolitan area in the world. The British regained control in 1749 through the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. The capital is Chennai, in the northeastern portion of the state. R S Krishnasamy, better known by his pseudonym Vallikannan, whose centenary is this year, stood for freedom in contemporary Tamil literature. The modern city of "Chennai" arose from the British settlement of Fort St. George and its subsequent expansion through merging numerous native villages and European settlements around Fort St. George into the city of Madras. [11] The dispute arose as over the preceding hundred years, the early British, European workers and small cottage capitalists had been replaced in large part by both Tamil and Telugu speaking people. The British fought with various European powers, notably the French at Vandavasi (Wandiwash) in 1760, where de Lally was defeated by Sir Eyre Coote, and the Danish at Tharangambadi (Tranquebar). 162 Related Articles [filter] Aditya I. For instance, Golkonda forces under General Mir Jumla conquered Madras in 1646, massacred or sold into slavery many of the Christian European inhabitants and their allied Indian communities, and brought Madras and its immediate surroundings under his control. Friends, Family, Historical Places 1 out of 10 best historical places places to visit in Chennai. However, other national groups, chiefly FrenchPortuguese, and other Catholic merchants had separate agreements with the Nayak which allowed them in turn to establish trading posts, factories, and warehouses. Consequently, they expanded the Chartered control of the company by encompassing the neighbouring villages of Triplicane, Egmore, Purasawalkam and Chetput to form the city of Chennapatnam, as it was called by locals then. • 36th metropolitan city all across the world. Following several outbreaks of violence by various Hindu and Muslim Indian communities against the Christian Europeans, White Town's defenses and its territorial charter was expanded to incorporate most of the area which had grown up around its walls thereby incorporating most of its Catholic European settlements. Popular Articles. It was built during the rule of Marathas. The Thousand Lights Mosque of Royapettah, Chennai is among the most esteemed mosques of the city as well as the state of Tamil Nadu. It is located on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. In 1639, the local Indian rulers granted the East India Company a parcel of land upon which a fort was built as a residence for British settlers. The original building which housed Spencer & Co. was burnt down in a fire in 1983 and the present structure houses one of the largest shopping malls in India, Spencer Plaza. Chennai, Formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is India's fifth largest city.wikipedia. The city of Madras, started out its journey towards becoming modern day Chennai - capital of the state of Tamil Nadu, manufacturing hub of the country and hence the ‘Detroit of India’ ; as a part of the famous Vijayanagara kingdom. Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Subsequently, Firmans were issued by the Mughal Emperor granting the rights of the English East India company in Madras and formally ending the official capacity of local rulers to attack the British. Clear[x] 5 ★ Rediscover History at Alamparai Fort. After the fall of Golkonda in 1687, the region came under the rule of the Mughal Emperors of Delhi who in turn granted new Charters and territorial borders for the area. On 20 August 1639, Francis Day of the East India Company along with Damerla Venkatadri Nayakadu traveled to Chandragiri palace to meet the Vijayanagara King Peda Venkata Raya and to obtain a grant for a small strip of land in the Coromandel Coast from in Chandragiri as a place to build a factory and warehouse for their trading activities. In 1674, the expanded colony had nearly 50,000 mostly British and European colonists and was granted its own corporate charter, thereby officially establishing the modern day city. He was for the language of expression that breaks away from conventional norms. Spencer's started as a small business in 1864 and went on to become the biggest department stores in Asia at the time. Kiriburu is a residential locale in West Singhbhum district and is situated at a height of 4,300ft from man sea level. Their small fortified settlement quickly attracted other East Indian traders and as the Dutch position collapsed under hostile Indian power they also slowly joined the settlement. The medieval period of the history of the Tamil country saw the rise and fall of many kingdoms, some of whom went on to the extent of empires, exerting influences both in India and overseas. Unmoved 7%. However, it is widely recorded that while the official center of the present settlement was designated Fort St. George, the British applied the name Madras to a new large city which had grown up around the Fort including the "White Town" consisting principally of British settlers, and "Black Town" consisting of principally Catholic Europeans and allied Indian minorities. The Fort still stands today, and a part of it is used to house the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly and the Office of the Chief Minister. Historically, Siddhar also refers to the people who were early age wandering adepts that dominated ancient Tamil teaching and philosophy. The Pallavas who had so far been merely viceroys, then became independent rulers of Kanchipuram and its surrounding areas. During the reorganisation of states in India on linguistic lines, in 1953, Telugu speakers wanted Madras as the capital of Andhra Pradesh[10] and coined the slogan "Madras Manade" (Madras is ours). While most of the original city of Madras was built and settled by Europeans, the surrounding area which was later incorporated included the native temples of Thiruvanmiyur, Thiruvotriyur, Thiruvallikeni (Triplicane), and Thirumayilai (Mylapore) which have existed for more than 2000 years. ABOUT CHENNAI • Madras, acquired its name from Madraspattinam which is a fishing village situated to the north of Fort St. George. Kiriburu is situated in the state of Jharkhand. 22 History Research jobs available in Chennai, Tamil Nadu on Indeed.co.in. 36 History Part Time jobs available in Chennai, Tamil Nadu on Indeed.com. Chennai is the automobile capital of India, with around forty percent of the automobile industry having a base there and with a major portion of the nation's vehicles being produced there. Merchandise Flow Team Member, Lead, Bioprocess Development, Registered Nurse and more! Nonetheless, the Fort and its surrounding walls remained under British control who slowly rebuilt their colony with additional colonists despite another mass murder of Europeans in Black Town by anti-colonialists agitated by Golkonda and plague in the 1670s. Tondaimandalam was ruled in the 2nd century CE by Tondaiman Ilam Tiraiyan, who was a representative of the Chola family at Kanchipuram. In 1693, a perwanna was received from the local Nawab granting the towns of Tondiarpet, Purasawalkam and Egmore to the company which continued to rule from Fort St. George. In February 1640, Day and Cogan, accompanied by a few factors and writers, a garrison of about twenty-five European soldiers and a few other European artificers, besides a Hindu powder-maker named Naga Battan, proceeded to the land which had been granted and started a new English factory there. One of the top places to know the past of Old Madras, this is also a must-visit place for the history lovers in Chennai. Chennai (Madras) History. Because of its importance to the East India Company, the French plundered and destroyed the village of Chepauk and Blacktown, the locality across from the port where all the dockyard labourers used to live.[8]. This place was supposedly named so by Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu, Nayak of Vandavasi in remembrance of his father Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu. Therefore, because of the fort's proximity or origin to the village of Mandraspatnam, and the fort's centrality to the development of the city, the British settlers of the city later named their settlement Madras in honour of it. Following the British victory in the Seven Years' War they eventually dominated, driving the French, the Dutch and the Danes away entirely, and reducing the French dominions in India to four tiny coastal enclaves. Before 17th century. Both groups strived to grow their colonial populations and although their populations reached 10,000 people when the British arrived, they remained substantially outnumbered by the local Indian population. Known as the ‘Gateway to South India,’ Chennai is a major administrative and cultural center. The Pallavas were defeated by the Cholas under Aditya I by about 879 and the region was brought under the Chola rule. Controversially, in an attempt to revise history and justify renaming the city as Chennai, the ruling party has purged the history of the early English Madras settlements. The crisis also imperiled Parry & Co and Binny & Co, but both found rescuers. GO . Parry’s Corner - Chennai 600001. Thiruvanmiyur, Thiruvotriyur, and Thirumayilai are mentioned in the Thevarams of the Moovar (of the Nayanmars) while Thiruvallikeni in the Nalayira Divya Prabhandhams (of the Alwars). Sad 13%. Over time and administrative reforms, the area was finally fully incorporated into the new metropolitan charter of Madras. The Portuguese would later arrive in the 16th century, followed by the Dutch. Currently, the place houses the Tamil Nadu legislative assembly and different more official buildings. It is a Shaivite place of offering worships with idols and rock-cut images of Lord Shiva and other Hindu deities. Collectively, the original Fort St. George settlement, "White Town", and "Black Town" were called Madras. In fact, in all records of the times, a difference is made between the original village of Madraspatnam and the new town growing around the Fort known as "White Town". They began construction of the Fort St George on 23 April 1640 and houses for their residence. Lal Mahal of Pune is one of the most famous monuments of Pune. Chennai, originally known as Madras Patnam, was located in the province of Tondaimandalam, an area lying between Pennar river of Nellore and the Pennar river of Cuddalore. Thereafter in a nod to the declining fortunes of the British textile owners and skilled workers who were still extant in the city, the Madras Trades Association was established in 1856, by which the old colonial families still involved in the skilled and textile trades were granted entry into the British and Indian financial trade system. Lotus Mahal, also called, Chitragani Mahal and Kamal Mahal, is located in the Zenana enclosure of Hampi. Dhanu. In the latter half of the 18th century, Madras became an important British naval base, and the administrative centre of the growing British dominions in southern India. In turn, the Madras Stock Exchange was established in 1920. It’s a bustling Indian city home to many sea beaches, British colonial architecture, newly developed markets, and some of the oldest temples in the world. It in honor of the later village upon which the British named the entire colony and the combined city Madras. The region was then a part of the Vijayanagara Empire, then headquartered at Chandragiri in present-day Andhra Pradesh. The Raja, Venkatapathy Rayulu, was succeeded by his nephew Sri Rangarayulu in 1642, and Sir Francis Day was succeeded by Thomas Ivy. Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu, the local governor of the Vijayanagar Empire and Nayaka of Wandiwash (Vandavasi), ruled the coastal part of the region, from Pulicat to the Portuguese settlement of San Thome. mixed Anglo Indian descendants of the original English settlers, a smaller but still extant British and European community, as well as migrant Malayalee communities in the city. The Pallavas held sway over this region from the beginning of the 3rd century to the closing years of the 9th century, except for the interval of some decades when the region was under the Kalabhras. Thus it is improbable that the area was ever called Chennai. Chennai has also become a major centre for outsourced IT and financial services from the Western world. Therefore, from 1965 to 1967, the city saw agitations against this two language (Hindi and local language) policy, and witnessed sporadic rioting. [13], Various etymologies have been posited for the name, Chennai or Chennapattanam. 1st century CE was ruled under the Cholas. Although the original inhabitants of Madras and responsible for its growth into the modern metropolis of today, the British and European nationals are virtually non-existent. In 2004, An 'Indian Ocean Tsunami' altered the coastline of Chennai permanently, killing many and leaving thousands of hundreds homeless. He had his headquarters at Wandiwash, and his brother Ayyappa Nayakudu resided at Poonamallee, a few miles to the west of Madras, where he looked after the affairs of the coast. This was also surrounded by a wall. As a result, over time, the area came to be known as 'White Town'. In 1788, Thomas Parry arrived in Madras as a free merchant and he set up one of the oldest mercantile companies in the city and one of the oldest in the country (EID Parry). Chennai is the fourth most populous metropolitan area and the fifth most populous city in India. Earlier, Panagal Raja, Chief Minister of Madras Presidency in the early 1920s had suggested that the Cooum River be the boundary between the Tamil and Telugu administrative areas. The history of Chennai in Tamil , Chennai historic places Photos - http://www.ssivf.com/ssivf_cms.php?page=468 To further consolidate their position, the Company combined the various settlements around an expanded Fort St. George, which including its citadel also included a larger outside area surrounded by an additional wall. vayiratharayan of Virukanbakkam alias Chenninallur. History of Chennai, Tamil Nadu Chennai, formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is India`s fourth largest city. Millions of people starved to death throughout British ruled Tamil Nadu, around 3.9 million people perished in Chennai alone within two years of 1877–78.[9]. It can be broadly divided into Ancient, Medieval and Modern Tamil Nadu. As a result, during the Governorship of Elihu Yale (1687–92), the large number of British and European settlers led to the most important political event which was the formation of the institution of a Mayor and the Corporation for the city of Madras. [1] It is located on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. While it has an industrial core in Chennai… As a result, owing to the frequency of outbursts of racial and national violence against the Europeans and especially the English, Fort St George with its impressive fortifications became the nucleus around which the city grew and rebuilt itself. • 400 years old city. You can get more informations about Sidhdhargal, through this app. 15 Votes Excited 7%. Modern Chennai had its origins as a colonial city and its initial growth was closely tied to its importance as an artificial harbour and trading center. Consequently, once the area separating Chennapatnam and Old Madras was built over uniting the two settlements, as founders, settlers, and authorities of area, the English named the new united city Madras. Over time, Indians also arrived in ever greater numbers and soon, the Portuguese and other non-Protestant Christian Europeans were outnumbered. As the city is an important administrative and commercial centre, many others such as Bengalis, Punjabis, Gujaratis and Marwaris, as well as people from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar migrated to the city and have contributed to its cosmopolitan nature. Under Hindu caste code, as well as English Common Law, it is unlikely that Fort St. George was built upon the village of Madraspatnam and its inhabitants incorporated into the new town. The British also fought four wars with the Kingdom of Mysore under Hyder Ali and later his son Tipu Sultan, which led to their eventual domination of India's south. Under this Charter, the British and Protestant inhabitants were granted the rights of self-government and independence from company law. However, from 1960s, the Central government started gearing up the use of Hindi in business and government. As more and more Indians arrived from the countryside to work in the city, the British and other Europeans found it increasingly difficult to establish or maintain independent wealth as they had during the early East Indian regime. The English soon realized that the port Armagon was unsuitable for trade purposes. Instead, being the gateway of trade and the centre of the economy of the region, the English settlement and their fort of 1639–40, which was the basis for the presently named city of Chennai, was likely called Madras as well by the rest of India. The first official use of the name Chennai is said to be in a sale deed, dated 8 August 1639, to Francis Day of the East India Company. Unakoti is an archaeological venue in Tripura. But there is some consensus that it is an abbreviation of Madraspatnam, the site chosen by the British East India Company for a permanent settlement in 1639.[15]. Chennai, formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is India's fifth largest city. It was from Damarla Venkatadri Nayakadu domain, on 22 August 1639, the piece of land lying between the river Cooum almost at the point it enters the sea and another river known as the Egmore river was granted to East India Company after deed from Vijaynagara emperor. The calico cloth from the local area, which was in high demand, was of poor quality and not suitable for export to Europe. This together with the written records makes it clear that the Fort which became the centre of present Chennai, was built upon or nearby the village of Madraspatnam. For … NATION'S EXISTENCE A hundred years ago, we don't have a recognized nation called India, it was all federation of various kingdoms, dynasties that defined and collectively called as region of hindustan, at some places as India. In the early 17th century Beri Thimmappa of the Puragiri Kshatriya (Perike) caste migrated to the locality from Palacole, near Machilipatnam in Andhra Pradesh. Nonetheless, as any purview of the city's and other major metropolitan cemeteries of India can attest, hundreds of thousands came to India between the 1600s (decade) and 1770s and later another million more came between 1770 and 1870. Since its establishment as a city in 1639, English was the official language of the city. The DMK renamed Madras to Chennai as DMK founder Anna renamed Madras State as Tamil Nadu. 300 BCE - 300 CE: Sangam period in Tamil Nadu.Some Chennai neighbourhoods such as Mylapore appear to have been places of prominence during the Sangam period.Poet Valluvar is often associated with Mylapore. Today, Chennai also has a growing expatriate population especially from the United States, Europe and East Asia who work in the industries and IT centres. History. Learn more about the history and characteristics of Chennai in this article. The city has changed its boundaries as well as the geographic limits of its quarters several times, principally as a result of raids by surrounding Hindu and Muslim powers. காரணம் இங்கு… Madras Tondaimandalam. Madraspatnam seemed favorable during the inspection, and the calicoes woven there were much cheaper than those at Armagon (Durgarazpatam). Each time, the survivors fell back upon the safety of the Fort St George. The Chennai area has always attracted seafarers, spice traders and cloth merchants. Tamil Nadu, state of India, located in the extreme south of the country. They then strengthened and expanded Fort St George over the next thirty years to bear subsequent attacks, the strongest of which came from the French (1759, under Thomas Arthur, Comte de Lally), and later Hyder Ali, the Sultan of Mysore in 1767 during the First Anglo-Mysore War. The Pandyas under Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan rose to power and the region was brought under the Pandya rule by putting an end to Chola supremacy in 1264. All three grants are said to have been engraved on gold plates which were later reported to have been plundered, disappearing during one of the genocides of the English colony. During the function, Rahul said, “I have specially come here since Tamil culture, language and history is important for the future of India and it needs to be respected by everyone in India. Assistant Manager, Project Coordinator, Sales Representative and more! The development of a harbour in Madras led the city to become an important centre for trade between India and Europe in the 18th century. The face of the new-verse movement was a frail looking writer who spoke through his strong characters. Currently, the nomenclature of the area is in a state of controversy. Shocked 7%. Following the Treaty of Madras which brought that war to an end, the external threats to Madras significantly decreased. During World War I, Madras (Chennai) was shelled by the German light cruiser SMS Emden, resulting in 5 civilian deaths and 26 wounded.