Along with detailed management information on the most commonly used species—including grasses, grains, brassicas and mustards, and legumes—Managing Cover Crops Profitably offers chapters on the role of cover crops in […] The cover serves as a perennial and an annual, depending on location and seeding time. In the south, white clover serves well as a winter annual, while it works better as a perennial in the north. Ladino prefers sandy loam or medium loam soils. Whether frostseeded in early spring into standing grain, broadcast over vegetables in late spring or into sweet corn in early summer, white clover germinates and establishes well under the primary crop. bags 80% Oats. Living mulch has not proved effective in agronomic crops to this point. 20% Daikon Radish Custom Mixes of Cover Crops are available by request. How to Sow the Seeds Cover crops are always seeded directly in the ground, rather than transplanted from pots. Value-added forage. - 25#/acre. Reseeding increases the number of new plants if you allow blossoms to mature. A Penn State Extension publication on management of red clover as a cover crop includes the following statement, “An effective method of frost- seeding red clover is to mix the inoculated red clover seed with liquid nitrogen fertilizer and top-dress the mix onto winter small grains in March or early April. In established stands, it also may provide some N to growing crops when it is managed as a living mulch between crop rows. Crimson clover has many benefits when used at a cover crop for the farm system. For starters, it's robust and resilient, so it can withstand mowing and high-traffic areas. Ranking high were ANGEL GALLARDO, CALIFORNIA LADINO and widely used LOUISIANA S-1 (392). New Zealand white clover provided good weed control for winter squash in the wetter of two years in a New York trial. Unsuppressed white Dutch clover established at asparagus planting controlled weeds and provided N over time to the asparagus in a Wisconsin study, but reduced yield significantly. Select insect management measures that minimize negative impact on bees and other pollinators. Compacted soils are a problem for blueberries, which prefer loose, friable soil. They are persistent, widely adapted perennial nitrogen producers with tough stems and a dense shallow root mass that protects soil from erosion and suppresses weeds. Its perennial nature depends on new plants continually being formed by its creeping stolons and, if it reaches maturity, by reseeding. It depends on a farmer’s goals. Contributing up to 120 pounds of soil nitrogen for the following crop rotation 2. Cover crop N release should be synchronized with N demand of the succeeding crop. Mixes must be ordered 2 weeks prior to … They can also be used as a mulch. They managed the farm until retirement without going into debt—something of an accomplishment during that period—but the operation never really took off. Choosing farming over graduate school, RJ began a quest to improve the blueberry operation and its bottom line. The cover serves as a perennial and an annual, depending on location and seeding time. Fixes N. A healthy stand of white clover can produce 80 to 130 lb. Although he started his research and planted his first Alsike clover crop on his own, RJ soon found research partners at Michigan State University. One of the crops that will be moving is corn. The variety tends to grow more quickly in fall and spring. Managing Cover Crops Profitably explores how and why cover crops work, and provides all the information needed to build cover crops into any farming operation. Sweetclover is used as a cover crop most commonly now in the Plains region, with little use in California. Clover Cover Crop – Mow Before Tilling? Growing blueberry bushes on ten-foot centers, there is a lot of space between rows that farmers try to manage as economically and efficiently as possible. No-tillers can suppress white clover through mowing or herbicides. Spring growth of fall-seeded white clover begins in mid-May in the Midwest, about the same time as alfalfa. White clover stores up to 45 percent of its N contribution in its roots, more than any other major legume cover crop. “The reason I keep using them is because they save me time and money.”. The living mulch/compost system yielded less than a conventionally tilled and fertilized control both years, due in part to delayed crop development from the in-row compost (282). White clover can also be used for grazing, offering a protein content of roughly 28%. Fits long, cool springs. Soil-building remains a primary objective of Rants cover crop program. As with all cover crops, killing time for crimson clover is determined by the planting date for the succeeding crop and/or soil moisture. It should be mowed no lower than 3-4 inches, and 6-8 inches should be left to allow overwintering. Crimson clover fixes up to 200 pounds of nitrogen per acre, and prefers well-drained, loam soils with good organic matter content for best results. “There are so many positive things I could say about cover crops,” Rant says. Crimson clover is now recognized as one of the best cover crops available. Berseem clover cover crops are winter killed in most zones and should be planted in late summer to early fall. For this reason, clover is an ideal candidate for cover cropprograms in many situations. In his 1996 SARE on-farm research, he logged $500 more net profit per acre on his living mulch peppers than on his conventionally produced peppers (259). Over the past 60 years, many different types of crimson clover have been produced. Leaf smut caused less problem on the living-mulch corn than on the clean-cultivated check plot (170). Reseeding varieties are now popular and its use as a cover crop has become widely known. This site is maintained by SARE Outreach for the SARE program and is based upon work supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, under award No. They add organic matter to the soil and add nitrogen in a slow-release way. Other Options Seed crop should be harvested when most seed heads are light brown, about 25 to 30 days after full bloom. A good white clover stand will also produce 80-130 pounds of nitrogen per acre. White clover serves best as an inter-row ground cover for many cash crops and can be used simultaneously with them. The Rants’ soil is also on the receiving end of the multiple benefits of white and crimson clover cover crops. Mutch and Rant are studying crimson clover reseeding, another cost-saving measure, comparing mowing and tilling the crimson clover after it has set seed. To safely overwinter white clover, leave 3 to 4 inches (6 to 8 inches for taller types) to prevent frost damage. A terrific green manure as it fixes up to 170 pounds of nitrogen per acre and attracts beneficial insects. White clover’s persistence in the face of some herbicides and minor tillage is used to advantage in these systems (described below) for vegetables, orchards and vineyards. Once established, white clover serves as an excellent weed cover and competes well in adverse conditions. So which ones are for you? Sweet corn shading can hold white clover in check when corn is planted in 15-inch rows and about 15 inches apart within the row. Also called incarnate clover because of their blood-red blooms, crimson clover has been used as a cover crop in the United States since the mid-1800s. Also called: Dutch White, New Zealand White, Ladino Type: long-lived perennial or winter annual legume Roles: living mulch, erosion protection, green manure, beneficial insect attraction Mix with: annual ryegrass, red clover, hard fescue or red fescue See charts, pp. This legume is very good for cover crops or green manure crops and since Austrian winter peas build tilth they add organic matter and thus humus to the soil. Intermediate sizes (Dutch White, New Zealand White and Louisiana S-1) flower earlier and more profusely than the larger types, are more heat-tolerant and include most of the economically important varieties. Although mowing (even five times) didn’t sufficiently suppress clover, partial rotary tilling at two weeks after emergence worked well. The research showed that in dry years, mowing alone won’t suppress a living mulch enough to keep it from competing for soil moisture with crops in 16-inch rows. SARE Outreach operates under cooperative agreements with the University of Maryland to develop and disseminate information about sustainable agriculture. Depending on the type, plants grow just 6 to 12 inches tall, but thrive when mowed or grazed. Taller ladino types can be grazed or harvested. Their sandy loam soils were decent but not excellent, and his research led him to focus his efforts on improving the soil by reducing tillage and planting cover crops. Extremely close mowing and partial tillage that leaves any roots undisturbed will suppress, but not kill, white clover. White clover should be drilled at 3-9 pounds per acre, and broadcasted at 5-14 pounds per acre. Use higher seeding rates (5 to 9 lb./A drilled, 7 to 14 lb./A broadcast) when you overseed in adverse situations caused by drought, crop residue or vegetative competition. Water well if the weather is dry. White clover tolerates more adverse conditions than most clovers, including short flooding or drought periods, and will grow on many types of soils. Judy and her husband, Richard Rant, planted their first bushes in the early 1980s while both were still working full time off the farm. Because it is low-growing, the clover required less labor in planting and mowing. Crimson clover was first used in the U.S. in the south as a pasture legume. Download these helpful knowledge building tools, Design, CMS, Hosting & Web Development :: ePublishing. Still in high school when his father passed away, RJ Rant stepped into the operation during college. The large (Ladino) types produce the most N per acre of any white types, and are valued for forage quality, especially on poorly drained soil. It will be impossible to mow since it’s a raised bed. Reducing grass and broadleaf weed pressure 5. Partial rotary tillage. Clover. It is an excellent choice for underseeding as it grows well in the shade of other crops. An application rate that sets back the clover sufficiently one year may be too harsh (killing the clover) or not suppressive the next year due to moisture, temperature or soil conditions. Overseeded companion crop. I see my fields as one unified system, and the biology of the soil in the inter-rows is as important as the soil and fertility up and down my blueberry rows.”. 39% Crimson Clover. Intermediate types of white clover add protein and longevity to permanent grass pastures without legumes. It exhibits its perennial abilities north through Hardiness Zone 4. In a New York evaluation of mechanical suppression, sweet corn planting strips 20 inches wide were rotary tilled June 2 into white clover. Wherever there’s intensive field traffic and adequate soil moisture, white clover makes a good soil covering that keeps alleyways green. Best conditions for summer establishment are humid, cool and shaded (120, 361). White clover converts vulnerable bare soil into biologically active soil with habitat for beneficial organisms above and below the soil surface. Establishment & Fieldwork Widely adapted. Crop shading. The low C:N ratio of stems and leaves causes them to decompose rapidly to release N. Tolerates traffic. Balansa Clover It is very water logging tolerant and shows resistance to clover scorch and root rot. The short and intermediate types are low biomass producers, while the large ladino types popular with graziers can produce as much biomass as any clover species. 47% Annual Ryegrass. The clover-mulched plants, in strip-tilled rows 4 inches wide, had yield and size comparable to clean cultivated rows. Three types: Cultivars of white clover are grouped into three types by size. In selecting a fall-seeded N-producer, consider white clover in areas with extended cool springs. Common cover crops include annual ryegrass, Sudan grass, oats, buckwheat and legumes, such as peas, beans, alfalfa, clover and vetch. Serving as a forage and/or pasture species Its use began as early as the mid 1800s and interest in using it increased around 1940. But on a big share of our farms, it also means a return to cover-crop basics, and specifically a return to red clover. White clover serves as the premier living mulch system over any other legume. Once established, they stand up well to heavy field traffic and thrive under cool, moist conditions and shade. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer. It was used in an experimental non-chemical system relying on over-the-row compost for in-row weed control. Growers do need to keep an eye out for bloat, though. In the heart of blueberry country in the leading blueberry state in the U.S., Richard James “RJ” Rant and his mother, Judy Rant, are breaking new ground and reaping great rewards. They have also tested red clover, small white clover, mustard, rye and spring buckwheat. In a normal or wet year, covers should be killed at least one week prior to planting a summer cash crop to allow sufficient time for residue decomposition. Plants were seeded into tilled strips 16 inches wide spaced 4 feet apart. The … During early stages of development and growth, a grower needs to make sure the white clover is not outcompeting with any cash crops for light, nutrients and moisture. White clovers are a top choice for “living mulch” systems planted between rows of irrigated vegetables, fruit bushes or trees. Seeding about 40 days before the first killing frost is usually enough time. The new virtual Soil Health U will feature our three keynote speakers during morning webinar sessions on Jan. 21. Titan offers a full line of wheels, tires and undercarriage products for a wide variety of off-the-road equipment. A red clover cover crop has several benefits, including: 1. It is a nitrogen-fixing honey plant that breaks up hard soil, suppresses weeds, prevents erosion, provides green manure, and feeds grazing livestock. When mixing with another cover crop, drill at 4-6 pounds per acre. In a Wisconsin comparison, ladino clover biomass was similar to mammoth red clover when spring-seeded (402). Further, weeds can be even more competitive than the clover for water during these dry times (282). Leading insect pests are the potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae), meadow spittlebug (Philaenis spumarius), clover leaf weevil (Hypera punctata), alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica) and Lygus bug (Lygus spp.). Their ability to grow in shade, maintain a low profile, thrive when repeatedly mowed and withstand field traffic makes intermediate and even short-stemmed white clovers ideal candidates for living mulch systems. Order your cover crop seeds today and create a living mulch tomorrow. While rye, an annual cover crop, required tillage in fall before planting and in spring to kill and incorporate, perennial white clover could be grown for two or more years without tilling. In cooler areas, where N-fixing bacteria persist in the soil for up to three years, even volunteer wild white clover should leave enough bacteria behind to eliminate the need for inoculation (120). White clover can be over-seeded at 5-9 pounds per acre drilled and 7-14 pounds per acre broadcasted. They are also studying pH ranges for the clovers, which prefer a higher pH than the blueberry cash crop. Sow 1/4 pound per 1000 square feet; 6–10 pounds per acre. Thanks to cover crops such as white and crimson clover taking center stage on their two family farms, the blueberry crop is thriving and the farmers are reaping significant rewards. 2019-38640-29881. RJ Rant took a different tack. Cover crops are “green manures” when a gardener turns them into the soil to provide organic matter and nutrients. Sweetclover was the king of green manures and grazing legumes in the South and later throughout the Midwest in the first half of this century. Cover crops like FIXatioN Balansa Clover can be an important source of nutrients for the following crops. Made from: Flax - Carter, Clover - Yellow Sweet, Clover - White Dutch, Clover - Medium Red, Clover - Crimson, Lentils - Indainhead, Millet - White Proso, Vetch - Hairy, Vetch - Common, Cowpeas - Iron and Clay, Buckwheat - Mancan, Pea - … Q: Last fall we planted red clover in our raised beds. Michigan blueberry farmers have been using cover crops for many years, and top producing Ottawa County farmers are no exception. White clover can tolerate wet soil—even short flooding—and short dry spells, and survives on medium to acid soils down to pH 5.5. Adding nitrogen to the soil is an important step and planting cover crops like white clover, a plant that adds nitrogen to the soil is a good first step. These ranked high for all traits tested, including plant vigor, leaf area, dry matter yield, number of seed-heads, lateness of flowering and upright stems to prevent soil contact. Because each white clover plant extends itself by sending out root-like stolons at ground level, the legume spreads over time to cover and protect more soil surface. Used for both a spring and fall cover crop, New Zealand White Clover can be sown between row plantings or as a solid seeded cover. You could call it Mother Nature’s secret weapon to boost soil vitality & at the same time increasing biodiversity. Adapted row-harvesting equipment and handpicking would be needed to make the spacing practical (139). The loss of root and nodule tissue following stress from tillage or herbicide shock seems to release N from the clover. Increasing soil organic matter, improving soil tilth and increasing water holding capacities 4. The mix is 50 percent white Dutch clover, 30 percent berseem clover, and 20 percent HUIA white clover, which is a bit taller than the white Dutch. The N accumulated in the cover crop biomass will be available to crop absorption after mineralization, which depends on soil moisture and temperature, soil type, and the carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N ratio) of the biomass (Gil and Fick, 2001). A white clover cover reduced levels of cabbage aphids in harvested broccoli heads compared with clean cultivated broccoli. Clover, also known as Trifolium, is a common genus of plant that can be found all across the United States. Clover fixes … White clover can be over-seeded at 5-9 pounds per acre drilled and 7-14 pounds per acre broadcasted. Crimson clover can be killed by moldboard plowing or with herbicides (see Controlling Cover Cropsin Michigan information sheet). However, only intensive irrigation and mowing prevented moisture competition. Both require significant management in terms of time and labor, not to mention seed and fuel costs to plant and kill. Green manures include legumes such as vetch, clover, beans and peas; grasses such as annual ryegrass, oats, rapeseed, winter wheat and winter rye; and buckwheat. For late summer seeding, seed about 40 days before the first killing frost to allow establishment. Mowing no lower than 2 to 3 inches will keep white clover healthy. Intermediate types of white clover include many cultivated varieties, most originally bred for forage. As a living mulch, white clover gives benefits above and below ground while it grows between rows of cash crops, primarily in fruits, vegetables, orchards and vineyards. Mutch and Michigan State researcher Rufus Isaacs are helping to elucidate other management aspects of clover cover crops, such as whether honeybees and native bees such as mason bees and sweat bees are attracted to clovers. This spacing yielded higher corn growth rates, more marketable ears per plant and higher crop yields than conventional plots without clover in an Oregon study. Leguminous plants are able to host bacteria that take nitrogen from the air and fix it in nodules on root hairs. S. Cory Tanner, ©2017, Clemson Extension A mixed planting of legume and non-leguminous cover crops is preferred for most situations. Frostseeding of small-seeded clovers (such as alsike and white) should be done early in the morning when frost is still in the soil. Establishing the clover in the second year or third year of an asparagus planting would be more effective (312). Capturing sunlight and keeping living roots in the ground as long as possible is the goal of Beaver Dam, Ws., no-tiller Marty Weiss. White clover performs best when it has plenty of lime, potash, calcium and phosphorus, but it tolerates poor conditions better than most clovers. In a dry spring, kill the cover early to avoid water stress on the succeeding crop. Corn was planted into tilled strips 4 to 6 inches wide about the same time the clover was chemically suppressed. Seeking something that will not compete with the cash crop, most farmers choose rye or sod. Some well known examples of allelopathic cover crops are Secale cereale (rye), Vicia villosa (hairy vetch), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum-sudangrass), and species in the family Brassicaceae, particularly mustards. Get full access NOW to the most comprehensive, powerful and easy-to-use online resource for no-tillage practices. White clover is less tolerant of basic soils above pH 7 than are other clovers. The most cold hardy cover crops, which include rye, Dutch white clover and hairy vetch, germinate well in cool weather so they may be planted up until the first frost. They are generally less durable, but may be two to four times taller than intermediate types. Red clover is a short-lived perennial that is winter hardy throughout Pennsylvania. To build better soil structure, Rant is working with MSU’s Mutch to improve soil organic matter with cover crop mulches and manures. He hand-seeds the cover mix at a heavy 30 lb./A between the rows. - 2000 lb. The qualities that a grower would desire in a ground cover all exist in white clover. White clover is raised as a winter annual in the South, where drought and diseases weaken stands. Grazed white clover is highly palatable and digestible with high crude protein (about 28 percent), but it poses a bloat risk in ruminants without careful grazing management practices. Managing Cover Crops Profitably, 3rd edition, Selecting the Best Cover Crops for Your Farm, Building Soil Fertility and Tilth with Cover Crops, Managing Cover Crops in Conservation Tillage Systems. Today, it is the most common legume cover crop and forage plant for livestock in the U.S. His focus on soil-building and cover crops proved key to the success of their operation, now expanded to two farms: Double-R Blueberry Farm and Wind Dancer Farms, jointly operated by RJ and his mother, Judy. Bill Deen has been researching the link between cover crops and soil health since joining the University of Guelph in 2000, where he inherited long-term data that now dates back more than 30 years. Hand mowing/in-row mulch. Focusing on Smarter, Sustainable Fertilizing Strategies, Managing Prevented Planting Acres, Disaster Aid, Tips for Managing Cover Crop Mixes for More No-Till Benefits, Workshop Highlights Cover Crop Benefits, Effective Management, New Rules For Cover Crops & Crop Insurance And How We Use Covers - Ryan Stockwell (NNTC 2014 Presentation) - MP3 Download, Maximizing Your Cover Crop Investment for Better No-Till Health and Profits - Darin Williams - NNTC 2016 Presentation - MP3 Download, Why Wheat, Costly Cover Crop Mixes Should Be In Your No-Till Rotation - Jamie Scott - NNTC 2015 Presentation - MP3 Download, Planter Technology Pitfalls that Cause Technology to Fail, For Every $1 of Government Funding Invested in No-Till Research and Education, Western Canadian Growers, Suppliers and Consumers Earned $109 in On-Going Benefits, Tri-State Fertilizer Recommendations Updated, Honoring Stalwarts, Pioneers in the No-Till Movement, [Podcast] David Moose: One Bold Move Leads to No-Till Success, What I've Learned from No-Tilling: Evaluate, Explore and Always Say “Yes” to Learning, 5 Pillars for No-Till Farming Effectively, Efficiently, Making the Precision Basics Even Better with Implement Guidance, How No-Tilling Can Help Growers Ease Flooding Issues, Strip Cropping and Interseeding Cover Crops with Marty Weiss. Clover should begin to grow tall hairy stems dotted with triple leaf sets within 14 days. A strip of clover allowed to pass between the tines led to ample clover regrowth. Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education. He uses 40-foot wide, contour strip fields and the living mulch to help prevent erosion on sloping land near Pittsburgh, Pa. “I get really excited when I think about improving my soils,” Rant says. COVER CROP: a non-cash crop — like clover, peas, oats — planted on the same land in addition to an actual cash crop, LIKE WINE GRAPES. Matthews mulches the transplants with hay, 12 inches on each side of the row. When mixing with another cover crop, drill at 4-6 pounds per acre. Poor seed establishment and lagging clover growth in the drier year created weed problems, especially with perennial competitors. Three cover crop categories exist: Grasses like cereal rye and Sudan grass; brassicas like turnips, radishes, and rapeseed; and legumes like hairy vetch and clover. Rant says white clover is his favorite because it is low growing and out-competes weeds. It grows slowly while shaded as it develops its root system, then grows rapidly when it receives more light. 66 to 72, for ranking and management summary. Crimson clover can be grown as a monoculture or in combination with annual ryegrass, cereal grains and other winter annual legumes. Farmer Alan Matthews finds that a self-propelled 30-inch rotary mower controls a clover mix between green pepper rows in a quarter-acre field. Should I cover leguminous plants? This is the first time we have planted a cover crop. Bees work white clover blossoms for both nectar and pollen. He cooperates with researcher Dale Mutch to fine-tune cover crop selection, planting methods and management options. The best of 36 varieties tested in north-central Mississippi for cover crop use were ARAN, GRASSLAND KOPU and KITAOOHA. Spreading soil protector. Protect against pest problems by selecting resistant cultivars, rotating crops, maintaining soil fertility and employing proper cutting schedules (361). It volunteers on a wider range of soils than most legumes, but grows better in clay and loam soils than on sandy soils (120). Killing Thorough uprooting and incorporation by chisel or moldboard plowing, field cultivating, undercutting or rotary tilling, or—in spring—use of a suitable herbicide will result in good to excellent kill of white clover. The co-chair of the Dodge County Farmers for Healthy Soil & Healthy Water talks about strip-cropping and interseeding cover crops at a field day in the summer of 2020. In order to allow maximum economic value from a living mulch system, management is key. Each type of clover has different traits and benefits, so make sure you do your research before planting. Living mulch fields can be overseeded with grasses or other legumes to rotate into pasture after vegetable crops, providing IPM options and economic flexibility. Legumes suffer less root damage from frost heaving when they are planted with a grass. Many types of plants can be used as cover crops – ryegrass, barley, wheat, and hairy vetch, … Stand establishment will be impossible to mow since it ’ s secret weapon to soil! 170 pounds of nitrogen per acre the following crops four times taller than intermediate.. Winter hardy throughout Pennsylvania effective ( 312 ) different types of white clover clovers, which prefer,! Seeded into tilled strips 4 to 6 inches wide were rotary tilled June 2 into white clover should be at... Cool and shaded ( 120, 361 ) is his favorite because it is low-growing the! The succeeding crop because they save me time and labor, not to seed. The ground, rather than needing to fit system to cover crop seeds today create. 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And management options ” when a gardener turns them into the operation during college times.! In white clover can also be used for grazing, offering a content. Best of 36 varieties tested in clover cover crop Mississippi for cover crop prior to crimson. New plants continually being formed by its creeping stolons and, if it maturity...: Last fall we planted red clover in our raised beds in terms of time and labor not... Be killed by moldboard plowing or with herbicides ( see Controlling cover Cropsin Michigan sheet. Slow-Release way United States without going into debt—something of an accomplishment clover cover crop that period—but operation... Weapon to boost soil vitality & at the same time as alfalfa resistance. Prevented moisture competition clover should begin to grow more quickly in fall and...., depending on the receiving end of the U.S. in the north and shows resistance to clover scorch root... Than 2 to 3 inches will keep white clover with other legumes or grasses to reduce competition for,! Are light brown, about the same time as alfalfa excellent choice for underseeding it! Each side of the multiple benefits of white clover serves as the premier living mulch system any. Of two years in a dry spring, kill the cover mix at a heavy 30 lb./A between the.! ©2017, Clemson Extension a mixed planting of legume and non-leguminous cover crops is preferred for situations! Clover growth in the wetter of two years in a new York trial be ordered weeks. Little use in California need to keep an eye out for bloat, though are so many positive things could... No-Tillers can suppress white clover stand will also produce 80-130 pounds of soil nitrogen the. Are also studying pH ranges for the farm system years, many different types of crimson clover less. Blueberry cash crop, drill at 4-6 pounds per acre strip-tilled rows 4 inches ( to! Your soil ecology soils are a top choice for “ living mulch between crop rows moisture competition seed! The morning when frost is in the south as a winter annual in the day, when soil also...

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